There are many different parts and pieces of furniture, and it can get confusing (especially when you first start to buy and sell it). Here are some parts and pieces of what I have run across over the years:
Cabriole—This is a double-curved form used in legs (and even feet). The upper portion of the leg curves outward while the lower part curves inward. This makes an S shape on the legs and is very distinctive.
Bombé—This is a French term for the outwardly curving shape of a piece of furniture. The most thought of form is that of a chest.
Armoire—This is a clothes cupboard, and this can be a pretty sizable piece of furniture. In most cases, an Armoire is a type of wardrobe.
Marquetry—This is a decorative technique in which different woods are inlaid into the body of a piece to create an image. Flowers are a common motif; other images are used though. Most of the time the inlay work is done with various woods—other materials like mother-of-pearl, ivory, and even tortoiseshell, have been used.
What types of parts and pieces terms have you run across?